Resveratrol

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Information on nutritional supplements people with ALS have been taking

Effects on ALS[edit]

In rat brain cortical motoneuron primary culture, resveratrol protects against neurotoxic effects and antagonizes the [Ca(+2)](c) elevation produced by ALS/CSF. However, riluzole does not afford protection and antagonizes the resveratrol-elicited neuroprotective effects. [1]

Our results indicate that resveratrol potently reduced LPS-induced PGE2 synthesis and the formation of 8-iso-PGF2 alpha, a measure of free radical production. Interestingly, resveratrol dose-dependently reduced the expression (mRNA and protein) of mPGES-1, which is a key enzyme responsible for the synthesis of PGE2 by activated microglia, whereas resveratrol did not affect the expression of COX-2. Resveratrol is therefore the first known inhibitor which specifically prevents mPGES-1 expression without affecting COX-2 levels. Another important observation of the present study is that other COX-1 selective inhibitors (SC-560 and Valeroyl Salicylate) potently reduced PGE2 and 8-iso-PGF2 alpha production by LPS-activated microglia. These findings suggest that the naturally occurring polyphenol resveratrol is able to reduce microglial activation, an effect that might help to explain its neuroprotective effects in several in vivo models of brain injury. [2]

Here, we report that a human homologue of SIR2, SIRT1, is upregulated in mouse models for AD, ALS and in primary neurons challenged with neurotoxic insults. In cell-based models for AD/tauopathies and ALS, SIRT1 and resveratrol, a SIRT1-activating molecule, both promote neuronal survival. In the inducible p25 transgenic mouse, a model of AD and tauopathies, resveratrol reduced neurodegeneration in the hippocampus, prevented learning impairment, and decreased the acetylation of the known SIRT1 substrates PGC-1alpha and p53. [3]

Resveratrol specifically inhibits the TRIF pathway in TLR3 and TLR4 signaling, by targetting TBK1 and RIP1 in the TRIF complex. [4]

Resveratrol effectively prevented HNE-induced JNK and caspase activation, and hence apoptosis. Activation of AP-1 along with increased c-Jun and phospho-c-Jun levels could be inhibited by pretreatment of cells with resveratrol. Moreover, Nrf2 downregulation by HNE could also be blocked by resveratrol.[5]

Resveratrol produces changes associated with longer lifespan, including increased insulin sensitivity, reduced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) levels, increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) activity, increased mitochondrial number, and improved motor function. Parametric analysis of gene set enrichment revealed that resveratrol opposed the effects of the high-calorie diet in 144 out of 153 significantly altered pathways. [6]

Resveratrol News: Collection of sources suggesting that low dosing (up to about 150 mg/day) is beneficial but high doses harmful.

Research article link collection[edit]

Research papers on resveratrol and ALS

Discussion threads on the ALSTDI forum[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Yáñez et al.: CSF from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients produces glutamate independent death of rat motor brain cortical neurons: protection by resveratrol but not riluzole. Brain Res. 2011;1423:77-86. PMID: 21983205. DOI. The neurotoxic effects of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients suffering amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), have been reported by various authors. However, variable results have been communicated and the mechanism of such neurotoxicity has been attributed to excess glutamate concentrations in ALS/CSF. We have studied here the properties of 14 CSFs from control patients and 29 CSFs from patients of ALS. We found that while ALS/CSF impairs the viability of rat brain cortical motoneurons maintained in primary cultures, this effect seemed to be exerted through a glutamate-independent mechanism. Resveratrol protected against such neurotoxic effects and antagonized the [Ca(+2)](c) elevation produced by ALS/CSF. However, riluzole did not afford protection and antagonized the resveratrol-elicited neuroprotective effects. We conclude that ALS/CSF elicited neurotoxicity on in vitro cultures of rat brain cortical motor neurons may become a sound microassay to test available novel multitargeted neuroprotective compounds with potential therapeutic application in ALS patients.
  2. Candelario-Jalil et al.: Resveratrol potently reduces prostaglandin E2 production and free radical formation in lipopolysaccharide-activated primary rat microglia. J Neuroinflammation 2007;4:25. PMID: 17927823. DOI. BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammatory responses are triggered by diverse ethiologies and can provide either beneficial or harmful results. Microglial cells are the major cell type involved in neuroinflammation, releasing several mediators, which contribute to the neuronal demise in several diseases including cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Attenuation of microglial activation has been shown to confer protection against different types of brain injury. Recent evidence suggests that resveratrol has anti-inflammatory and potent antioxidant properties. It has been also shown that resveratrol is a potent inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 activity. Previous findings have demonstrated that this compound is able to reduce neuronal injury in different models, both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to examine whether resveratrol is able to reduce prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2 alpha) production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated primary rat microglia. METHODS: Primary microglial cell cultures were prepared from cerebral cortices of neonatal rats. Microglial cells were stimulated with 10 ng/ml of LPS in the presence or absence of different concentrations of resveratrol (1-50 microM). After 24 h incubation, culture media were collected to measure the production of PGE2 and 8-iso-PGF2 alpha using enzyme immunoassays. Protein levels of COX-1, COX-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) were studied by Western blotting after 24 h of incubation with LPS. Expression of mPGES-1 at the mRNA level was investigated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. RESULTS: Our results indicate that resveratrol potently reduced LPS-induced PGE2 synthesis and the formation of 8-iso-PGF2 alpha, a measure of free radical production. Interestingly, resveratrol dose-dependently reduced the expression (mRNA and protein) of mPGES-1, which is a key enzyme responsible for the synthesis of PGE2 by activated microglia, whereas resveratrol did not affect the expression of COX-2. Resveratrol is therefore the first known inhibitor which specifically prevents mPGES-1 expression without affecting COX-2 levels. Another important observation of the present study is that other COX-1 selective inhibitors (SC-560 and Valeroyl Salicylate) potently reduced PGE2 and 8-iso-PGF2 alpha production by LPS-activated microglia. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the naturally occurring polyphenol resveratrol is able to reduce microglial activation, an effect that might help to explain its neuroprotective effects in several in vivo models of brain injury.
  3. Kim et al.: SIRT1 deacetylase protects against neurodegeneration in models for Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. EMBO J. 2007;26:3169-79. PMID: 17581637. DOI. A progressive loss of neurons with age underlies a variety of debilitating neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), yet few effective treatments are currently available. The SIR2 gene promotes longevity in a variety of organisms and may underlie the health benefits of caloric restriction, a diet that delays aging and neurodegeneration in mammals. Here, we report that a human homologue of SIR2, SIRT1, is upregulated in mouse models for AD, ALS and in primary neurons challenged with neurotoxic insults. In cell-based models for AD/tauopathies and ALS, SIRT1 and resveratrol, a SIRT1-activating molecule, both promote neuronal survival. In the inducible p25 transgenic mouse, a model of AD and tauopathies, resveratrol reduced neurodegeneration in the hippocampus, prevented learning impairment, and decreased the acetylation of the known SIRT1 substrates PGC-1alpha and p53. Furthermore, injection of SIRT1 lentivirus in the hippocampus of p25 transgenic mice conferred significant protection against neurodegeneration. Thus, SIRT1 constitutes a unique molecular link between aging and human neurodegenerative disorders and provides a promising avenue for therapeutic intervention.
  4. Youn et al.: Specific inhibition of MyD88-independent signaling pathways of TLR3 and TLR4 by resveratrol: molecular targets are TBK1 and RIP1 in TRIF complex. J. Immunol. 2005;175:3339-46. PMID: 16116226. TLRs can activate two distinct branches of downstream signaling pathways. MyD88 and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-beta (TRIF) pathways lead to the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and type I IFN genes, respectively. Numerous reports have demonstrated that resveratrol, a phytoalexin with anti-inflammatory effects, inhibits NF-kappaB activation and other downstream signaling pathways leading to the suppression of target gene expression. However, the direct targets of resveratrol have not been identified. In this study, we attempted to identify the molecular target for resveratrol in TLR-mediated signaling pathways. Resveratrol suppressed NF-kappaB activation and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in RAW264.7 cells following TLR3 and TLR4 stimulation, but not TLR2 or TLR9. Further, resveratrol inhibited NF-kappaB activation induced by TRIF, but not by MyD88. The activation of IFN regulatory factor 3 and the expression of IFN-beta induced by LPS, poly(I:C), or TRIF were also suppressed by resveratrol. The suppressive effect of resveratrol on LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation was abolished in TRIF-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts, whereas LPS-induced degradation of IkappaBalpha and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible NO synthase were still inhibited in MyD88-deficient macrophages. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibited the kinase activity of TANK-binding kinase 1 and the NF-kappaB activation induced by RIP1 in RAW264.7 cells. Together, these results demonstrate that resveratrol specifically inhibits TRIF signaling in the TLR3 and TLR4 pathway by targeting TANK-binding kinase 1 and RIP1 in TRIF complex. The results raise the possibility that certain dietary phytochemicals can modulate TLR-derived signaling and inflammatory target gene expression and can alter susceptibility to microbial infection and chronic inflammatory diseases.
  5. Kutuk et al.: Resveratrol protects against 4-hydroxynonenal-induced apoptosis by blocking JNK and c-JUN/AP-1 signaling. Toxicol. Sci. 2006;90:120-32. PMID: 16322078. DOI. In the present study we have studied the effect of resveratrol in signal transduction mechanisms leading to apoptosis in 3T3 fibroblasts when exposed to 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE). In order to gain insight into the mechanisms of apoptotic response by HNE, we followed MAP kinase and caspase activation pathways; HNE induced early activation of JNK and p38 proteins but downregulated the basal activity of ERK (1/2). We were also able to demonstrate HNE-induced release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, caspase-9, and caspase-3 activation. Resveratrol effectively prevented HNE-induced JNK and caspase activation, and hence apoptosis. Activation of AP-1 along with increased c-Jun and phospho-c-Jun levels could be inhibited by pretreatment of cells with resveratrol. Moreover, Nrf2 downregulation by HNE could also be blocked by resveratrol. Overexpression of dominant negative c-Jun and JNK1 in 3T3 fibroblasts prevented HNE-induced apoptosis, which indicates a role for JNK-c-Jun/AP-1 pathway. In light of the JNK-dependent induction of c-Jun/AP-1 activation and the protective role of resveratrol, these data may show a critical potential role for JNK in the cellular response against toxic products of lipid peroxidation. In this respect, resveratrol acting through MAP kinase pathways and specifically on JNK could have a role other than acting as an antioxidant-quenching reactive oxygen intermediate.
  6. Baur et al.: Resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a high-calorie diet. Nature 2006;444:337-42. PMID: 17086191. DOI. Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) extends the lifespan of diverse species including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. In these organisms, lifespan extension is dependent on Sir2, a conserved deacetylase proposed to underlie the beneficial effects of caloric restriction. Here we show that resveratrol shifts the physiology of middle-aged mice on a high-calorie diet towards that of mice on a standard diet and significantly increases their survival. Resveratrol produces changes associated with longer lifespan, including increased insulin sensitivity, reduced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) levels, increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) activity, increased mitochondrial number, and improved motor function. Parametric analysis of gene set enrichment revealed that resveratrol opposed the effects of the high-calorie diet in 144 out of 153 significantly altered pathways. These data show that improving general health in mammals using small molecules is an attainable goal, and point to new approaches for treating obesity-related disorders and diseases of ageing.