Peony root extract

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Information on nutritional supplements people with ALS have been taking

Effects on ALS[edit]

Potential HSP-70 inducer: Treatment of cells with paeoniflorin but not glycyrrhizin resulted in enhanced phosphorylation and acquisition of the deoxyribonucleic acid–binding ability of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), as well as the formation of characteristic HSF1 granules in the nucleus, suggesting that the induction of HSPs by paeoniflorin is mediated by the activation of HSF1. [1]

Furthermore, PF decreased the release of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α as well as inhibited the mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in the hippocampus of VD rats (P<0.05 or P<0.01). PF also could decrease the protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in the hippocampus of VD rats (P<0.05 orP<0.01). In addition, PF significantly inhibited the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway in the hippocampus of VD rats. [2]

Here, we have examined the efficacy of PF in the repression of inflammation-induced neurotoxicity and microglial inflammatory response. In organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, PF significantly blocked lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hippocampal cell death and productions of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin (IL)-1β. PF also inhibited the LPS-stimulated productions of NO, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-1β from primary microglial cells. These results suggest that PF possesses neuroprotective activity by reducing the production of proinflammatory factors from activated microglial cells. [3]

We found that PF inhibited the expression of CD69/CD86 and the proliferation of B cells stimulated by LPS. In addition, PF reduced the B-cell differentiation and immunoglobulin production that was stimulated by LPS. Interestingly, PF did not alter B-cell activation and proliferation provoked by anti-CD40 or IL-4. These results indicated for the first time that PF inhibits B-cell activation, proliferation and differentiation by selectively blocking the LPS/TLR4 signaling pathway. Furthermore, our data suggest that PF selectively inhibits inflammation and tissue damage mediated by LPS-activated B cells but does not alter CD40/CD40L- or IL-4-provoked B-cell function in autoimmune diseases treatment, which might aid in protecting patients from secondary infection. [4]

Discussion threads on the ALSTDI forum[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Yan et al.: Paeoniflorin, a novel heat shock protein-inducing compound. Cell Stress Chaperones 2004;9:378-89. PMID: 15633296. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are induced by various physical, chemical, and biological stresses. HSPs are known to function as molecular chaperones, and they not only regulate various processes of protein biogenesis but also function as lifeguards against proteotoxic stresses. Because it is very useful to discover nontoxic chaperone-inducing compounds, we searched for them in herbal medicines. Some herbal medicines had positive effects on the induction of HSPs (Hsp70, Hsp40, and Hsp27) in cultured mammalian cells. We next examined 2 major constituents of these herbal medicines, glycyrrhizin and paeoniflorin, with previously defined chemical structures. Glycyrrhizin had an enhancing effect on the HSP induction by heat shock but could not induce HSPs by itself. In contrast, paeoniflorin had not only an enhancing effect but also an inducing effect by itself on HSP expression. Thus, paeoniflorin might be termed a chaperone inducer and glycyrrhizin a chaperone coinducer. Treatment of cells with paeoniflorin but not glycyrrhizin resulted in enhanced phosphorylation and acquisition of the deoxyribonucleic acid-binding ability of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), as well as the formation of characteristic HSF1 granules in the nucleus, suggesting that the induction of HSPs by paeoniflorin is mediated by the activation of HSF1. Also, thermotolerance was induced by treatment with paeoniflorin but not glycyrrhizin. Paeoniflorin had no toxic effect at concentrations as high as 80 microg/ mL (166.4 microM). To our knowledge, this is the first report on the induction of HSPs by herbal medicines.
  2. Zhang et al.: Paeoniflorin improves regional cerebral blood flow and suppresses inflammatory factors in the hippocampus of rats with vascular dementia. Chin J Integr Med 2015;. PMID: 26577108. DOI. OBJECTIVE: To explore the delayed neuroprotection induced by paeoniflorin (PF), the principal component of Paeoniae radix prescribed in Chinese medicine, and its underlying mechanisms in rats subjected to vascular dementia (VD). METHODS: A rat model of VD was induced by bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAO). Low-dose or high-dose PF (20 or 40 mg/kg once per day) was administrated for 28 days after VD. The behavioral analysis of rat was measured by water morris. Regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV), regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and mean transit time (MTT) were measured in the bilateral hippocampus by perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI). The levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were measured by commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Protein levels were evaluated by western blot analysis. mRNA levels were evaluated by real time-polymerase chain reaction. Western blotting was used to estimate p65 translocation. RESULTS: The behavioral analysis showed that PF could decrease the escape latency time (P<0.05), and increase the residence time of the original platform quadrant and the across platform frequency in water maze in VD rats (P<0.05). Likewise, PF remarkably promoted the rCBV (P<0.05), rCBF and decreased per minute MTT (P<0.05) in hippocampus of VD rats. Furthermore, PF decreased the release of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α as well as inhibited the mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in the hippocampus of VD rats (P<0.05 or P<0.01). PF also could decrease the protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in the hippocampus of VD rats (P<0.05 orP<0.01). In addition, PF significantly inhibited the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway in the hippocampus of VD rats. CONCLUSIONS: PF significantly attenuates cognitive impairment, improves hippocampus perfusion and inhibits inflammatory response in VD rats. In addition, the anti-inflammatory effects of PF might be due to inhibiting the NF-κB pathway. PF may be a potential clinical application in improving VD.
  3. Nam et al.: Paeoniflorin, a monoterpene glycoside, attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuronal injury and brain microglial inflammatory response. Biotechnol. Lett. 2013;35:1183-9. PMID: 23559368. DOI. Chronic activation of microglial cells endangers neuronal survival through the release of various proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors. Paeoniflorin (PF), a water-soluble monoterpene glycoside found in the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, has a wide range of pharmacological functions, such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. Neuroprotective potential of PF has also been demonstrated in animal models of neuropathologies. Here, we have examined the efficacy of PF in the repression of inflammation-induced neurotoxicity and microglial inflammatory response. In organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, PF significantly blocked lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hippocampal cell death and productions of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin (IL)-1β. PF also inhibited the LPS-stimulated productions of NO, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-1β from primary microglial cells. These results suggest that PF possesses neuroprotective activity by reducing the production of proinflammatory factors from activated microglial cells.
  4. Zhang et al.: Paeoniflorin selectively inhibits LPS-provoked B-cell function. J. Pharmacol. Sci. 2015;128:8-16. PMID: 26041080. DOI. B cells are important in the development of autoimmune disorders through mechanisms involving dysregulated polyclonal B-cell activation, production of pathogenic antibodies, and targeting which reduces inflammation and tissue damage effectively but often leads to patients suffering from secondary infection. Paeoniflorin (PF) is the main substance of the Total glucosides of peony and has been widely used to treat autoimmune diseases for years. However, whether PF affects B cell activity remains unknown. In this study, using purified murine spleen B cells, we analyzed the effects of PF on B-cell function in vitro. We found that PF inhibited the expression of CD69/CD86 and the proliferation of B cells stimulated by LPS. In addition, PF reduced the B-cell differentiation and immunoglobulin production that was stimulated by LPS. Interestingly, PF did not alter B-cell activation and proliferation provoked by anti-CD40 or IL-4. These results indicated for the first time that PF inhibits B-cell activation, proliferation and differentiation by selectively blocking the LPS/TLR4 signaling pathway. Furthermore, our data suggest that PF selectively inhibits inflammation and tissue damage mediated by LPS-activated B cells but does not alter CD40/CD40L- or IL-4-provoked B-cell function in autoimmune diseases treatment, which might aid in protecting patients from secondary infection.