Luteolin

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Information on nutritional supplements people with ALS have been taking

Luteolin is an interesting naturally occurring bioflavinoid.

Effects on ALS[edit]

Apigenin and luteolin concentration-dependently suppressed IFN-γ-induced CD40 expression. Apigenin and luteolin also suppressed microglial TNF-α and IL-6 production stimulated by IFN-gamma challenge in the presence of CD40 ligation. In addition, apigenin and luteolin markedly inhibited IFN-γ-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 with little impact on cell survival.[1]

Luteolin concentration-dependently abolished LPS/IFN-γ-induced NO, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) production as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein and mRNA expression. Luteolin exerted an inhibitory effect on transcription factor activity including nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) in LPS/IFN-γ-activated BV-2 microglial cells. Biochemical and pharmacological studies revealed that the anti-inflammatory effect of luteolin was accompanied by down-regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Akt and Src.[2]

Luteolin, baicalein and quercetin inhibited the release of histamine, leukotrienes (LTs), prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from HCMC in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, the three flavonoids inhibited A23187-induced histamine release. As concerns Ca2+ signalling, luteolin and quercetin inhibited Ca2+ influx strongly, although baicalein did slightly. With regard to PKC signalling, luteolin and quercetin inhibited PKC translocation and PKC activity strongly, although baicalein did slightly.[3]

Discussion threads on the ALSTDI forum[edit]

luteolin

ALSUntangled evaluation[edit]

In summary, luteolin is an interesting naturally occurring bioflavinoid that has been shown to have a myriad of functions in various models that could potentially be useful in slowing progression in patients with ALS. However, convincing data to support any positive effect on human ALS do not yet exist. Furthermore, there are legitimate reasons to be concerned about safety in patients with ALS including the need for a concomitant carbohydrate-deficient diet which might induce unwanted weight loss, and an anecdotal report of accelerated progression on this supplement. Until carefully controlled, well-designed human efficacy and safety studies are performed, ALSUntangled does not support the use of luteolin or any luteolin-containing products in patients with ALS.[4]

References[edit]

  1. Rezai-Zadeh et al.: Apigenin and luteolin modulate microglial activation via inhibition of STAT1-induced CD40 expression. J Neuroinflammation 2008;5:41. PMID: 18817573. DOI. BACKGROUND: It is well known that most neurodegenerative diseases are associated with microglia-mediated inflammation. Our previous research demonstrates that the CD40 signaling is critically involved in microglia-related immune responses in the brain. For example, it is well known that the activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway plays a central role in interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)-induced microglial CD40 expression. We and others have previously reported that microglial CD40 expression is significantly induced by IFN-gamma and amyloid-beta (A beta) peptide. Recent studies have shown that certain flavonoids possess anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties distinct from their well-known anti-oxidant effects. In particular, flavonoids, apigenin and luteolin have been found to be effective CD40 immunomodulators. METHODS: Cultured microglia, both N9 and primary derived lines, were treated with flavonoids in the presence of IFN-gamma and/or CD40 ligation to assess any anti-inflammatory effects and/or mechanisms. CD40 expression on microglia was analyzed by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Anti-inflammatory effects and mechanisms were confirmed by ELISA for interleukin-6 (IL-6) and TNF-alpha, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, and STAT1 Western blotting. RESULTS: Apigenin and luteolin concentration-dependently suppressed IFN-gamma-induced CD40 expression. Apigenin and luteolin also suppressed microglial TNF-alpha and IL-6 production stimulated by IFN-gamma challenge in the presence of CD40 ligation. In addition, apigenin and luteolin markedly inhibited IFN-gamma-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 with little impact on cell survival. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide further support for apigenin and luteolin's anti-inflammatory effects and suggest that these flavonoids may have neuroprotective/disease-modifying properties in various neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD).
  2. Kao et al.: Luteolin inhibits cytokine expression in endotoxin/cytokine-stimulated microglia. J. Nutr. Biochem. 2011;22:612-24. PMID: 21036586. DOI. Microglial activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease by producing excessive proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide (NO). Luteolin, a naturally occurring polyphenolic flavonoid antioxidant, has potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties both in vitro and in vivo. However, the molecular mechanism of luteolin-mediated immune modulation in microglia is not fully understood. In the present study, we report the inhibitory effect of luteolin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon γ (IFN-γ)-induced NO and proinflammatory cytokine production in rat primary microglia and BV-2 microglial cells. Luteolin concentration-dependently abolished LPS/IFN-γ-induced NO, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) production as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein and mRNA expression. Luteolin exerted an inhibitory effect on transcription factor activity including nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) in LPS/IFN-γ-activated BV-2 microglial cells. Biochemical and pharmacological studies revealed that the anti-inflammatory effect of luteolin was accompanied by down-regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Akt and Src. Further studies have demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of luteolin on intracellular signaling execution and proinflammatory cytokine expression is associated with resolution of oxidative stress and promotion of protein phosphatase activity. Together, these results suggest that luteolin suppresses NF-κB, STAT1 and IRF-1 signaling, thus attenuating inflammatory response of brain microglial cells.
  3. Kimata et al.: Effects of luteolin, quercetin and baicalein on immunoglobulin E-mediated mediator release from human cultured mast cells. Clin. Exp. Allergy 2000;30:501-8. PMID: 10718847. BACKGROUND: Flavonoids have a variety of activities including anti-allergic activities, and are known to inhibit histamine release from human basophils and murine mast cells. OBJECTIVE: The effects of luteolin, a flavone, on the immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated allergic mediator release from human cultured mast cells (HCMCs) were investigated and compared with those of baicalein and quercetin. METHODS: HCMCs were sensitized with IgE, and then treated with flavonoids before challenge with antihuman IgE. The amount of released mediators was determined as was mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, protein kinase C (PKC) translocation and phosphorylation of intracellular proteins were detected after anti-IgE stimulation. RESULTS: Luteolin, baicalein and quercetin inhibited the release of histamine, leukotrienes (LTs), prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) from HCMC in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, the three flavonoids inhibited A23187-induced histamine release. As concerns Ca2+ signalling, luteolin and quercetin inhibited Ca2+ influx strongly, although baicalein did slightly. With regard to PKC signalling, luteolin and quercetin inhibited PKC translocation and PKC activity strongly, although baicalein did slightly. The suppression of Ca2+ and PKC signallings might contribute to the inhibition of mediator release. The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), that were activated just before the release of LTs and PGD2 and GM-CSF mRNA expression in IgE-mediated signal transduction events, were clearly suppressed by luteolin and quercetin. In contrast, the flavonoids did not affect the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that luteolin is a potent inhibitor of human mast cell activation through the inhibition of Ca2+ influx and PKC activation.
  4. ALSUntangled Group: ALSUntangled No. 10: Luteolin and Lutimax. Amyotroph Lateral Scler 2011;12:235-7. PMID: 21545238. DOI.