Citicoline

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Information on nutritional supplements people with ALS have been taking

Wikipedia page

The neuroprotective effects exhibited by citicoline may be due to its preservation of cardiolipin and sphingomyelin, preservation of arachidonic acid content of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, partial restoration of phosphatidylcholine levels, and stimulation of glutathione synthesis and glutathione reductase activity. Citicoline’s effects may also be explained by the reduction of phospholipase A2 activity. Citicoline increases phosphatidylcholine synthesis. The mechanism for this may be:
  • By converting 1, 2-diacylglycerol into phosphatidylcholine
  • Stimulating the synthesis of SAMe, which aids in membrane stabilization and reduces levels of arachidonic acid. This is especially important after an ischemia, when arachidonic acid levels are elevated.

— Wikipedia

Effects on ALS[edit]

Cytidine-5-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline, citicoline) is an endogenous nucleoside involved in generation of phospholipids, membrane formation and its repair. It demonstrates beneficial effects in certain central nervous system injury models, including cerebral ischaemia, neurodegenerative disorders and spinal cord injury. Defective neuronal and/or glial glutamate transport is claimed to contribute to progressive loss of motor neurons (MNs) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Our previous ultrastructural studies, performed on an organotypic tissue culture model of chronic glutamate excitotoxicity, documented a subset of various modes of MN death including necrotic, apoptotic and autophagocytic cell injury. The aim of this ultrastructural study was to determine the potential neuroprotective effect of CDP-choline on neuronal changes in a glutamate excitotoxic ALS model in vitro. Organotypic cultures of the rat lumbar spinal cord subjected to 100 microM DL-threo-beta-hydroxyaspartate (THA) were pretreated with 100 microM of CDP-choline. The exposure of spinal cord cultures to CDP-choline and THA distinctly reduced the development of typical apoptotic changes, whereas both necrotic and autophagocytic THA-induced MN injury occurred. These results indicate that CDP-choline treatment might exert a neuroprotective effect against neuronal apoptotic changes in a model of chronic excitotoxicity in vitro.[1]

Cytidine 5-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) has recently been reported to have neuroprotective effects in animal models for neurodegenerative diseases, attributable to its anti-glutamatergic, anti-excitotoxic, anti-apoptotic and membrane-preserving properties. In this study we administered either CDP-choline or vehicle to transgenic SOD1-G93A mice daily via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection starting before disease onset (day 30). By monitoring of survival, motor function, weight and general condition we examined possible therapeutic effects. Additional animals were used for histological studies to determine the effect of CDP-choline on motor neuron survival, astrocytosis and myelination in the spinal cord. Results showed that CDP-choline treatment modified neither the deterioration of general condition nor the loss of body weight. Survival of CDP-choline treated animals was not prolonged compared to vehicle treated controls. None of the behavioural motor function tests revealed differences between groups and no differences in motor neuron survival, astrocytosis or myelination were detected by histological analyses. In conclusion, our data from the transgenic mouse model do not strongly support further clinical validation of CDP-choline for the treatment of ALS.[2]

Regulated pathways[edit]

Possible synergies[edit]

Cautions and risks[edit]

Discussion threads on the ALSTDI forum[edit]

Where to get it[edit]

References[edit]

  1. Matyja et al.: CDP-choline protects motor neurons against apoptotic changes in a model of chronic glutamate excitotoxicity in vitro. Folia Neuropathol 2008;46:139-48. PMID: 18587708. Cytidine-5-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline, citicoline) is an endogenous nucleoside involved in generation of phospholipids, membrane formation and its repair. It demonstrates beneficial effects in certain central nervous system injury models, including cerebral ischaemia, neurodegenerative disorders and spinal cord injury. Defective neuronal and/or glial glutamate transport is claimed to contribute to progressive loss of motor neurons (MNs) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Our previous ultrastructural studies, performed on an organotypic tissue culture model of chronic glutamate excitotoxicity, documented a subset of various modes of MN death including necrotic, apoptotic and autophagocytic cell injury. The aim of this ultrastructural study was to determine the potential neuroprotective effect of CDP-choline on neuronal changes in a glutamate excitotoxic ALS model in vitro. Organotypic cultures of the rat lumbar spinal cord subjected to 100 microM DL-threo-beta-hydroxyaspartate (THA) were pretreated with 100 microM of CDP-choline. The exposure of spinal cord cultures to CDP-choline and THA distinctly reduced the development of typical apoptotic changes, whereas both necrotic and autophagocytic THA-induced MN injury occurred. These results indicate that CDP-choline treatment might exert a neuroprotective effect against neuronal apoptotic changes in a model of chronic excitotoxicity in vitro.
  2. Knippenberg et al.: CDP-choline is not protective in the SOD1-G93A mouse model of ALS. Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener 2013;14:284-90. PMID: 23286744. DOI. Important pathogenic factors in ALS include excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. Cytidine 5-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) has recently been reported to have neuroprotective effects in animal models for neurodegenerative diseases, attributable to its anti-glutamatergic, anti-excitotoxic, anti-apoptotic and membrane-preserving properties. In this study we administered either CDP-choline or vehicle to transgenic SOD1-G93A mice daily via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection starting before disease onset (day 30). By monitoring of survival, motor function, weight and general condition we examined possible therapeutic effects. Additional animals were used for histological studies to determine the effect of CDP-choline on motor neuron survival, astrocytosis and myelination in the spinal cord. Results showed that CDP-choline treatment modified neither the deterioration of general condition nor the loss of body weight. Survival of CDP-choline treated animals was not prolonged compared to vehicle treated controls. None of the behavioural motor function tests revealed differences between groups and no differences in motor neuron survival, astrocytosis or myelination were detected by histological analyses. In conclusion, our data from the transgenic mouse model do not strongly support further clinical validation of CDP-choline for the treatment of ALS.