Alcohol

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Information on nutritional supplements people with ALS have been taking


Alcohol (ethyl alcohol) and ALS[edit]

"The authors performed a population-based case-control study in the Netherlands between 2006 and 2009, including 494 patients with incident ALS and 1,599 controls. ... Current alcohol consumption was associated with a reduced risk of ALS (incident patient group: odds ratio = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.40, 0.75)."[1]

Five articles, including one cohort study and seven case-control studies, and a total of 431,943 participants, were identified. The odds ratio for the association between alcohol consumption and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was 0.57 (95 % confidence interval 0.51-0.64). ... Alcohol consumption reduced the risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis compared with non-drinking. Alcohol, therefore, has a potentially neuroprotective effect on the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.[2]

Several studies have revealed that acute ethanol inhibits the function of glutamate receptors. Glutamate receptor-mediated synaptic plasticity, such as N-methyl-D-aspartate-dependent long-term potentiation, is also inhibited by ethanol. However, the inhibition seems to be restricted to certain brain areas such as the hippocampus, amygdala and striatum. Ethanol inhibition of glutamate receptors generally requires relatively high concentrations and may therefore explain consequences of severe ethanol intoxication such as impairment of motor performance and memory. Effects of ethanol on glutamate system of developing nervous system may have a role in causing foetal alcohol syndrome. Newly found regulatory proteins of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid AMPA receptors seem to affect ethanol inhibition thus opening new lines of research. [3]

Cautions and risks[edit]

Unsuitable for alcoholics, common alcohol risks and health problems; risk of addiction, worse sleep, chronic use has risk of depression and anxiety, burdens liver, high amounts may lead to accidents and injury.

Mechanisms[edit]

  • Glutamate antagonist
  • GABA agonist

Yet, it seems that the most important neuroadaptive changes in progression from occasional alcohol intake to dependence are the down-regulation of the dopamine and gamma aminobutyric acid systems, permanent upregulation in the glutamate system and dysregulation in the stress systems (corticotropin-releasing hormone and serotonin) of the brain. [4]

Possible synergies[edit]

  • synergistic with glycine.

Discussion threads on the ALSTDI forum[edit]


References[edit]

  1. de Jong et al.: Smoking, alcohol consumption, and the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a population-based study. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2012;176:233-9. PMID: 22791740. DOI. Smoking has been posited as a possible risk factor for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but large population-based studies of patients with incident disease are still needed. The authors performed a population-based case-control study in the Netherlands between 2006 and 2009, including 494 patients with incident ALS and 1,599 controls. To prove the relevance of population-based incidence cohorts in case-control studies, the authors compared results with those from cohorts including patients with prevalent ALS and referral patients. Subjects were sent a questionnaire. Multivariate analyses showed an increased risk of ALS among current smokers (odds ratio = 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.88) in the incident patient group only. Cox regression models showed that current smoking was also independently associated with shorter survival (hazard ratio = 1.51, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.15), explaining the lack of association in the prevalent and referral patient groups. Current alcohol consumption was associated with a reduced risk of ALS (incident patient group: odds ratio = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.40, 0.75). These findings indicate that current smoking is associated with an increased risk of ALS, as well as a worse prognosis, and alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of ALS, further corroborating the role of lifestyle factors in the pathogenesis of ALS. The importance of population-based incident patient cohorts in identifying risk factors is highlighted by this study.
  2. E et al.: Association between alcohol consumption and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a meta-analysis of five observational studies. Neurol. Sci. 2016;37:1203-8. PMID: 27103621. DOI. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between alcohol consumption and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Published literature on the association between alcohol consumption and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was retrieved from the PubMed and Embase databases. Two authors independently extracted the data. The quality of the identified studies was evaluated according to the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed and publication bias was assessed. Five articles, including one cohort study and seven case-control studies, and a total of 431,943 participants, were identified. The odds ratio for the association between alcohol consumption and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was 0.57 (95 % confidence interval 0.51-0.64). Subgroup and sensitivity analyses confirmed the result. Evidence for publication bias was detected. Alcohol consumption reduced the risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis compared with non-drinking. Alcohol, therefore, has a potentially neuroprotective effect on the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
  3. Möykkynen & Korpi: Acute effects of ethanol on glutamate receptors. Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 2012;111:4-13. PMID: 22429661. DOI. Several studies have revealed that acute ethanol inhibits the function of glutamate receptors. Glutamate receptor-mediated synaptic plasticity, such as N-methyl-D-aspartate-dependent long-term potentiation, is also inhibited by ethanol. However, the inhibition seems to be restricted to certain brain areas such as the hippocampus, amygdala and striatum. Ethanol inhibition of glutamate receptors generally requires relatively high concentrations and may therefore explain consequences of severe ethanol intoxication such as impairment of motor performance and memory. Effects of ethanol on glutamate system of developing nervous system may have a role in causing foetal alcohol syndrome. Newly found regulatory proteins of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid AMPA receptors seem to affect ethanol inhibition thus opening new lines of research.
  4. Eşel & Dinç: [Neurobiology of Alcohol Dependence and Implications on Treatment]. Turk Psikiyatri Derg 2017;28:51-60. PMID: 28291298. The process of alcohol dependence has been conceptualized as a progress from controlled alcohol intake to compulsive alcohol consumption or a shift from alcohol intake for pleasure to compulsory alcohol seeking behavior. Hereditary and physical factors and the interaction of individuals with their environment, as well as permanent changes in the neurotransmitter and neurohormonal systems in the brain due to alcohol use, play the most important role in the etiology of alcohol dependence. The effects of ethanol on the neurotransmitter, neuropeptide and neuroendocrine systems not only account for its acute physiological and euphoric/reinforcing effects but also seem to be responsible for the development of dependence. While the motivation for alcohol use is mainly positive reinforcement in the earlier phases of alcohol consumption, both positive and negative reinforcements are involved in the process once dependence has developed. This event is caused by neuroadaptive process due to chronic alcohol consumption and also called as "allostasis". It seems that the most important neuroadaptive changes in progression from occasional alcohol intake to dependence are the down-regulation of the dopamine and gamma aminobutyric acid systems, permanent upregulation in the glutamate system and dysregulation in the stress systems (corticotropin-releasing hormone and serotonin) of the brain. In this paper, we will review the adaptive changes caused by chronic alcohol consumption which are important in the development of dependence and address the potential therapeutic contributions of interventions to these changes in alcohol dependence.