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Information on nutritional supplements people with ALS have been taking

Baicalin has low oral bioavailability. [1]

Effects on ALS[edit]

Increases VEGF expression through the activation of the ERRα/PGC-1α pathway [2] and inhibits NF-κB p65. [3]

Oroxylin A and wogonin have been implicated in preventing inflammatory responses in brain cells, which are thought to underlie some of the neuroprotective effects. (Source:

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  1. Zhao et al.: Nanoemulsion improves the oral bioavailability of baicalin in rats: in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Int J Nanomedicine 2013;8:3769-79. PMID: 24124365. DOI. Baicalin is one of the main bioactive flavone glucuronides derived as a medicinal herb from the dried roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, and it is widely used for the treatment of fever, inflammation, and other conditions. Due to baicalin's poor solubility in water, its absolute bioavailability after oral administration is only 2.2%. The objective of this study was to develop a novel baicalin-loaded nanoemulsion to improve the oral bioavailability of baicalin. Based on the result of pseudoternary phase diagram, the nanoemulsion formulation consisting of soy-lecithin, tween-80, polyethylene glycol 400, isopropyl myristate, and water (1:2:1.5:3.75:8.25, w/w) was selected for further study. Baicalin-loaded nanoemulsions (BAN-1 and BAN-2) were prepared by internal or external drug addition and in vivo and in vitro evaluations were performed. The results showed that the mean droplet size, polydispersity index, and drug content of BAN-1 and BAN-2 were 91.2 ± 2.36 nm and 89.7 ± 3.05 nm, 0.313 ± 0.002 and 0.265 ± 0.001, and 98.56% ± 0.79% and 99.40% ± 0.51%, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy revealed spherical globules and confirmed droplet size analysis. After dilution 30-fold with water, the solubilization capacity of BAN-1 and BAN-2 did not change. In vitro release results showed sustained-release characteristics. BAN-1 formulation was stable for at least 6 months and was more stable than BAN-2. In rats, the area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve value of BAN-1 was 1.8-fold and 7-fold greater than those of BAN-2 and free baicalin suspension after oral administration at a dose of 100 mg/kg. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the baicalin-loaded nanoemulsion formulation, in particular BAN-1, was very effective for improving the oral bioavailability of baicalin and exhibited great potential for future clinical application.
  2. Zhang et al.: Baicalin increases VEGF expression and angiogenesis by activating the ERR{alpha}/PGC-1{alpha} pathway. Cardiovasc. Res. 2011;89:426-35. PMID: 20851810. DOI. AIMS: Baicalin is the major component found in Scutellaria baicalensis root, a widely used herb in traditional Chinese medicine. Although it has been used for thousands of years to treat stroke, the mechanisms of action of S. baicalensis have not been clearly elucidated. In this report, we studied the modulation of angiogenesis as one possible mechanism by investigating the effects of these agents on expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a critical factor for angiogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of baicalin and an extract of S. baicalensis on VEGF expression were tested in several cell lines. Both agents induced VEGF expression in all cells without increasing expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). The expression of reporter genes was also activated under the control of the VEGF promoter containing either a functional or a defective HIF response element (HRE). Only minimal effects were observed on reporter activation under the HRE promoter. Instead, both agents significantly induced oestrogen-related receptor (ERRα) expression as well as the activity of reporter genes under the control of ERRα-binding element. Their ability to induce VEGF expression was suppressed once ERRα expression was knocked down by siRNA or ERRα-binding sites were deleted in the VEGF promoter. We also found that both agents stimulated cell migration and vessel sprout formation from the aorta. CONCLUSION: Our results implicate baicalin and S. baicalensis in angiogenesis by inducing VEGF expression through the activation of the ERRα pathway. These data may facilitate a better understanding of the potential health benefits of these agents in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
  3. Xue et al.: Baicalin attenuates focal cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury through inhibition of nuclear factor κB p65 activation. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2010;403:398-404. PMID: 21093411. DOI. Baicalin is a flavonoid compound purified from plant Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. We aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of baicalin against cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury. Male Wistar rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h followed by reperfusion for 24 h. Baicalin at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg was intravenously injected after ischemia onset. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, the neurological deficit was scored and infarct volume was measured. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was performed to analyze the histopathological changes of cortex and hippocampus neurons. We examined the levels of NF-κB p65 in ischemic cortexes by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR assay. The results showed that the neurological deficit scores were significantly decreased from 2.0 ± 0.7 to 1.2 ± 0.4 and the volume of infarction was reduced by 25% after baicalin injection. Histopathological examination showed that the increase of neurons with pycnotic shape and condensed nuclear in cortex and hippocampus were not observed in baicalin treated animals. Further examination showed that NF-κB p65 in cortex was increased after ischemia reperfusion injury, indicating the molecular mechanism of ischemia reperfusion injury. The level of NF-κB p65 was decreased by 73% after baicalin treatment. These results suggest that baicalin might be useful as a potential neuroprotective agent in stroke therapy. The neuroprotective effects of baicalin may relate to inhibition of NF-κB p65.